Archive for the wiccan clothes and items Category

My crafts : new book of shadows and new scrying mirrors

Posted in book of shadows, Haunted items, mirrors, my handmade crafts, pagan and wiccan, scrying, wiccan clothes and items, witches on May 21, 2017 by Psychic eevee

I know I said I wouldn’t be posting my homemade crafts on here anymore as I am running out of space but I will post the occasional thing that is to do with my work.

My old book of shadows is full up and falling to pieces so I made a new one.

A book of shadows is what a Pagan/Wiccan/Witch writes what they have learnt in and any spells they have performed etc.

I found a huge fabric binder that has a nice section on one side with a filing compartment ,which will be handy for keeping things I cut out of magazine’s in.

I decorated the front with a pentacle sew on patch, lots of charms,fake ivy leaves (to symbolise the feminine) barn owls as they are my power animal and a feather from my duck because she is one of my “Familiar’s”

The back : an eagle owl feather and a black eagle feather that my hubby got me from the bird of prey sanctuary he volunteers at, a wooden crow because that is his power animal and the beautiful Victorian style owl ribbon was sent to me by my lovely friend Lois in America.

Ribbon detail: witch charms

Ribbon detail: my name

Divider pages : images courtesy of google search

The good thing about using a binder is that you can take pages out and about with you if you are doing outside rituals ,but I would advise using those plastic page pockets

The cheap frame I got for 99p
I got this really cheap frame in a charity shop and sprayed the back of the glass black and added charms

This is my haunted mirror ,this is when I first tried to make it into a scrying mirror ,because it didn’t have plain glass I had to spray the front of the mirror but it was too dull,so I was going to get some very high gloss lacquer to coat over it,unfortunately the glass broke !

So I had to put new glass in it,I couldn’t afford to get some glass specifically cut for it because that is really expensive, the only glass I could find didn’t quite fit which was really annoying, so I had to cover the gaps with fake black orchids, I don’t like it but I guess it makes it a bit gothic and spooky looking.

This will be interesting, now that the original glass is broken will it stop the mirror being haunted ,or will it release the spirits into my house ? Will have to wait and see (with sage at the ready !!)
A FEW DAYS LATER :

That awkward moment when you walk past a mirror and think you have turned into a vampire !!! Because you forgot you turned it into a black glass scrying mirror and you can’t see your reflection!!! LOL ūüôā

See previous blog about this mirror

https://eeveelily.wordpress.com/2016/07/12/haunted-mirror/

Also,I think I have finally finished updating the strange Bowie monument I didnt even realise I had made !!

https://eeveelily.wordpress.com/2017/01/31/the-weird-blackstar-monument-coincidence/?preview=true

My old retired book of shadows that was getting ridiculously huge !

MORE ABOUT MY “RELIGION” AND HANDFASTING

Posted in pagan and wiccan, wiccan clothes and items with tags , on March 10, 2013 by Psychic eevee

these are self portraits and portraits of my Husband that I did of us in our Wiccan robes, it was great fun but a COLD night, the ones I am wearing , the white ones are my summer robes, I added some lovely flowers and butterflies to the bottom and round the hood, the robe was actually a fabulous bargain, only £1.50 from ebay !! I think the universe allowed me to have that because it knew I could not afford an expensive robe

the flowers and butterflies altogether cost about £20 ( I used LOADS of them) but it was still cheaper than most of the robes out there

my adopted “Mum” in America has kindly offered to make my winter robe which will be black and I will add moons to the bottom and hood

I will have yet another one when my Husband and I have our “handfasting” we decided that instead of renewing our vows on our 20th wedding anniversary (in three years) we would like a handfasting instead

so my Husband will need a special robe for that

you do not NEED robes to be Pagan or Wiccan but it somehow helps with the energy by including getting dressed up as part of your rituals

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click here for full album

I also did some of SOME of my altar items, ours is a very confusing “religion” I have hundreds of altar items that I have collected or made over the years, certain ones are used for certain “festivals” etc
it can take years of study to get your head round the whole lot !

they make for nice still life shots though

click  here for full album

Handfasting is an ancient European ceremony of (temporary or permanent) betrothal or wedding that dates back to pre-Medieval times and usually involves the tying or binding of the hands of the bride and groom with a cord or ribbon. Such ceremonies are widely practised in the Wiccan religion.[1]

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[edit]Etymology

The term is derived from the verb¬†to handfast, used in¬†Middle¬†to¬†Early Modern English¬†for the making of a¬†contract of marriage.[2]¬†The term is originally from¬†Old Norsehand-festa¬†“to strike a bargain by joining hands”.[2]

[edit]History

The Fourth Lateran Council (1215) forbade clandestine marriage, and required marriages to be publicly announced in churches by priests. In the sixteenth century, theCouncil of Trent legislated more specific requirements, such as the presence of a priest and two witnesses, as well as promulgation of the marriage announcement thirty days prior to the ceremony. These laws did not extend to the regions affected by the Protestant Reformation. In England, clergy performed many clandestine marriages, such as so-called Fleet Marriage, which were held legally valid;[3] and in Scotland, unsolemnized common-law marriage was still valid.

[edit]Scotland

The Scottish Hebrides, particularly in the Isle of Skye, show some records of a ‘Handfast” or “left-handed” marriage taking place as recently as the late 1600s¬†[4]¬†where the Gaelic scholar, Martin Martin, notes “It was an ancient custom in the Isles that a man take a maid as his wife and keep her for the space of a year without marrying her; and if she pleased him all the while, he married her at the end of the year and legitimatised her children; but if he did not love her, he returned her to her parents.”

Oral tradition and Gaelic scholars who have preserved these traditions from the Hebrides also reference the most disastrous war fought between the MacLeods and MacDonalds of Skye, culminating in the¬†Battle of Coire Na Creiche, “when Donald Gorm Mor who handfasted [for a year and a day] with Margaret MacLeod, a sister of Rory Mor of Dunvegan, expelled his mistress so ignominiously from Duntulm. It is, indeed, not improbable that it was as a result of this war that Lord Ochiltree’s Committee [that formed the Statutes of Iona in 1609 and the Regulations for the Chiefs in 1616] was induced to insert a clause in the Statutes of Iona by which ‘marriages contracted for several years’ were prohibited; and any who might disregard this regulation were to be ‘punished as fornicators'”.[5][6]

By the 18th century, the Kirk of Scotland no longer recognized marriages formed by mutual consent and subsequent sexual intercourse, even though the Scottish civil authorities did.[7] To minimize any resulting legal actions, the ceremony was to be performed in public.[8] This situation persisted until 1939, when Scottish marriage laws were reformed by the Marriage (Scotland) Act 1939 and handfasting was no longer recognized.[9]

In the 18th century, well after the term¬†handfasting¬†had passed out of usage, there arose a popular myth that it referred to a sort of “trial marriage.” A. E. Anton, inHandfasting in Scotland¬†(1958), finds that the first reference to such a “trial marriage” is by¬†Thomas Pennant¬†in his 1790¬†Tour in Scotland. This report had been taken at face value throughout the 19th century, and was perpetuated in¬†Walter Scott‘s 1820 novel¬†The Monastery.

Other scholars of the Hebrides and inhabitants of the region do not consider this a myth, as there are sufficient records in both the oral tradition and the written compilation of those records that predate both Pennant and Anton by a century or more that preserve the history of this tradition. Contrary to Anton’s assertions, the Pennant claim in 1790 was not the first time this had been discussed or put to print, as the Martin Martin texts predate Pennant by almost 100 years. Additionally, the Statutes of Iona were promulgated in 1609 to force an end to the Clan warfare between the MacLeods of Dunvegan and the MacDonalds of Eigg and Sleat as well as to create a more receptive path for Reformation and Protestantism by forcing the Chiefs of the Clans to encourage its spread and to finance the provisioning of Protestant minsters in their lands.

Customs may vary widely between various non-Christian native Europeans but many handfastings were traditionally for a period of up to seven years. At the end of the designated period of time the participants choose to recommit to the relationship or are free to make other choices in their lives. The handfasting tradition is not based upon ownership or property, men and women both have the right to own property. There is no shame implied or applied to either party should a handfasting not be renewed.[citation needed]

[edit]England

From the 12th to the 17th century ‚Äúhandfasting‚ÄĚ in England referred to a ceremony, usually about a month prior to a church wedding, at which the marrying couple formally declared that each accepted the other as spouse. Accounts of English handfasting ceremonies suggest that though invariably each person held the other‚Äôs right hand while making their vow,[10]¬†cords or ribbons were not used.

Originally the word ‚Äúhandfast‚ÄĚ came into English from Norse languages, and meant the act of sealing any bargain by taking hands.[11]¬†The earliest cited English usage in connection with marital status is from a manuscript of c. 1200, when¬†Mary (mother of Jesus)¬†is described as ‚Äúhandfast (to) a good man called Joseph‚ÄĚ.[12]

Handfasting was legally binding: as soon as the couple made their vows to each other they were validly married. It was not a temporary arrangement. Just as with church weddings of the period, the union which handfasting created could only be dissolved by death. English legal authorities held that, even if not followed by intercourse, handfasting was as binding as any vow taken in church before a priest.[10]

During handfasting the man and woman in turn would take the other by the right hand and declare aloud that they there and then accepted each other as man and wife. The words might vary but traditionally consisted of a simple formula such as ‚ÄúI (Name) take thee (Name) to my wedded husband/wife, till death us depart, and thereto I plight thee my troth‚ÄĚ.[10]¬†Because of this, handfasting was also known in England as ‚Äútroth-plight‚ÄĚ.[10]¬†Gifts were often exchanged, especially rings:[13][14]¬†a gold coin broken in half between the couple was also common. Other tokens recorded include gloves, a crimson ribbon tied in a knot, and even a silver toothpick.[10]¬†Handfasting might take place anywhere, indoors or out.[10]¬†It was frequently in the home of the bride, but according to records handfastings also took place in taverns, in an orchard and even on horseback . The presence of a credible witness or witnesses was usual.[10]

For much of the relevant period church courts dealt with marital matters. Ecclesiastical law recognised two forms of handfasting,¬†sponsalia per verba de praesenti¬†andsponsalia per verba de futuro. In¬†sponsalia de praesenti, the most usual form, the couple declared they there and then accepted each other as man and wife. Thesponsalia de futuro¬†form was less binding, as the couple took hands only to declare their intention to marry each other at some future date. The latter was closer to a modern engagement and could in theory be ended with the consent of both parties ‚Äď but only providing intercourse had not occurred. If intercourse did take place, then thesponsalia de futuro¬†‚Äúwas automatically converted into¬†de iure¬†marriage‚ÄĚ.[10]

Despite the validity of handfasting it was expected to be solemnized by a church wedding fairly soon afterwards. Penalties might follow for those who did not comply.[15]Ideally the couple were also supposed to refrain from intercourse until then.[10] Complaints by preachers suggest that they often did not wait,[10] but at least until the early 1600s the common attitude to this kind of anticipatory behaviour seems to have been lenient.[16]

Handfasting remained an acceptable way of marrying in England throughout the Middle Ages but declined in the early modern period.[17]¬†In some circumstances handfasting was open to abuse, with persons who had undergone “troth-plight” occasionally refusing to proceed to a church wedding, creating ambiguity about their former betrothed‚Äôs marital status.[10]¬†After the beginning of the 17th century gradual changes in English law meant the presence of an officiating priest or magistrate became necessary for a marriage to be legal.[18]¬†Finally the¬†1753 Marriage Act, aimed at suppressing clandestine marriages by introducing more stringent conditions for validity, effectively ended the handfasting custom in England.[19]

Shakespeare negotiated and witnessed a handfasting in 1604, and was called as a witness in a suit about the dowry in 1612.[10]

[edit]Modern usage

Neopagan handfasting ceremony

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article byadding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(December 2009)

In the present day, some¬†Neopagans¬†practice this ritual. The marriage vows taken may be for “a year and a day,” “a lifetime”, “for all of eternity” or “for as long as love shall last.” Whether the ceremony is legal, or a private spiritual commitment, is up to the couple. Depending on the region or country where the handfasting is performed, and whether or not the officiant is a legally recognized minister, the ceremony itself may be legally binding, or couples may choose to make it legal by also having a civil ceremony. Modern handfastings are performed for same-sex or opposite-sex couples, as well as for multiple partners in the case of¬†polyamorous¬†relationships. As with many Neopagan rituals, some groups may use historically attested forms of the ceremony, striving to be as traditional as possible, while others may use only the basic idea of handfasting and largely create a new ceremony.[20]

As many different traditions of Neopaganism use some variation on the handfasting ceremony, there is no universal ritual form that is followed, and the elements included are generally up to the couple being handfasted. In cases where the couple belong to a specific religious or cultural tradition, there may be a specific form of the ritual used by all or most members of that particular tradition. The couple may conduct the ceremony themselves or may have an officiant perform the ceremony. In some traditions, the couple may jump over a broom at the end of the ceremony. Some may instead leap over a small fire together. Today, some couples opt for a handfasting ceremony in place of, or incorporated into, their public wedding. As summer is the traditional time for handfastings, they are often held outdoors.[citation needed]

As with more conventional marriage ceremonies, couples often exchange rings during a handfasting, symbolizing their commitment to each other. Many couples choose rings that reflect their spiritual and cultural traditions, while others choose plainer, more conventional wedding rings.[citation needed]

Couples may wear Medieval clothing or more modern wedding garb.[citation need

NOTE HOW IT MENTIONS THE SCOTTISH HEBRIDES, MY GRANDFATHER WAS FROM THE ISLE OF LEWIS IN THE HEBRIDES AND HIS ANCESTORS WERE NORSE / NORWEGIAN ( which I only discovered recently) THIS EXPLAINS MY INTEREST IN ALL THINGS PAGAN AND THE NORSE METHODS OF DIVINATION SUCH AS RUNES , I believe this things are in your blood whether you know about it or not, you will eventually be drawn to these things, my interest in Runes came out long before I discovered about my Norse heritage

CLOAKS AND GODDESSES

Posted in gaia, gods and goddesses, pagan and wiccan, venus, wiccan clothes and items with tags , , , on December 5, 2012 by Psychic eevee

CLOAKS AND GODDESSES

Some Wiccan / Pagan items I would like to get if I had lots of money
I really need a cloak or two, a black one for winter and a white one for summer
there are some beautiful Celtic ones out there like these, with my Celtic heritage I should really get one but they are not cheap !! I LOVE the purple one
this white one is called ” Arwen” which reminds me of my Grand Daughter Arwen Rose ,who was named after Arwen from “The Lord of the Rings”
This Mother Earth (Gaia) statue is amazing , I would need to win the lottery to get it though

Venus of Willendorf:¬†¬†Neolithic.¬† Great-breasted Nurturer.¬† Willendorf Goddess represents Gaia, Mother Earth, and Mothering in all her raw and fertile splendor. The proud stance of this great-breasted nurturer, one of the earliest religious images of the Mother Goddess, is a powerful reminder that there is a standard for feminine beauty other than the one set by today’s advertisers.

She is considered the Goddess upon whose breast children find comfort, the “milk of human kindness,” and great safety and serenity.¬† Her wide-hipped form represents fertility in all of its forms.She is the most famous early image of a human, found in 1908 by the archaeologist Josef Szombathy in an Aurignacian loess deposit in a terrace about 30 meters above the Danube river near the town of Willendorf in Austria.

Her great age and pronounced female forms quickly established the Venus of Willendorf as an icon of prehistoric art, and she was soon included in introductory art history textbooks quickly displacing  other previously used examples of Paleolithic art.

Being both female and nude, she fitted perfectly into the patriarchal construction of the history of art. As the earliest known representation, she became the “first woman,” acquiring a sort of Ur-Eve identity. Original find is made of porous Oolitic limestone, not found in the region, and was presumably carved with flint tools.

GODDESS BAST / BASTET

Posted in animals, bast or bastet, familiars, gods and goddesses, tarot and oracles, wiccan clothes and items with tags , , , , , on December 5, 2012 by Psychic eevee

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I thought this was cute, my “familiar” Goddess Freya was not impressed that I got a new Bast

statue, I had bought quite a few things and as usual she made a beeline for the Wicca related items

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she was looking at it but with an expression that said ” I am the only cat Goddess around

here”

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she then turned her back on it !!

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this morning my mini Pagan Cats tarot arrived from amazon

they are beautifully designed, I wonder if my cat Goddess Freya will learn how to use them

they are the perfect size for her

info from wikipedia

Bastet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article’s¬†lead section¬†may not adequately¬†summarize¬†key points of its contents.¬†Please consider expanding the lead to¬†provide an accessible overview¬†of all important aspects of the article.¬†(May 2010)
Bastet

Bastet the goddess of cats
Bastet the Goddess of Cats, Lower Egypt, the sun and the moon
Name inhieroglyphs
W1 t B1

Unicode:¬†ūďéĮūūďĀź

Major cult center Bubastis
Symbol the cat, the lioness, thesistrum
Parents Ra, Isis

Photograph of an alabaster cosmetic jar topped with a lioness, representing Bast, a burial artifact from the tomb of¬†Tutankhamuncirca 1323 BC –¬†Cairo Museum

Bastet is the name commonly used by scholars today to refer to a feline goddess of ancient Egyptian religion who was worshipped at least since the Second Dynasty. Her name is also spelled Bast, Baast, Ubasti and Baset.[1]

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[edit]Name

Bastet, the form of the name which is most commonly adopted by¬†Egyptologists¬†today, is a modern convention offering one possible reconstruction. In early¬†Egyptian, her name appears to have been¬†b»Ěstt. In Egyptian writing, the second¬†tmarks a feminine ending, but was not usually pronounced, and the aleph¬†»Ě¬†may have moved to a position before the accented syllable, as witnessed by the Aramaic spelling¬†»Ěbst.[2]¬†By the first millennium, then,¬†b»Ěstt¬†would have been something like ‘obest’ or ‘ubesti’ in Egyptian speech.[2]

The town of Bastet’s cult (see below) was known in Greek as¬†Boubastis¬†(őíőŅŌćő≤őĪŌÉŌĄőĻŌā). The Hebrew rendering of the name for this town is¬†P√ģ-beset¬†(“House of Bastet”), spelled without¬†Vortonsilbe.[2]

What the name of the goddess means remains uncertain.[2]¬†One recent suggestion by Stephen Quirke (Ancient Egyptian Religion) explains it as meaning “She of the ointment jar”. This ties in with the observation that her name was written with the hieroglyph “oinment jar” (b»Ěs) and that she was associated with protective ointments, among other things.[2]

She was the goddess of Protection against contagious diseases and evil spirits. [3]

[edit]From lion-goddess to cat-goddess

From the third millennium BC, when Bastet begins to appear in our record, she is depicted as either a fierce lioness or a woman with the head of a lion.[4] Images of Bast were created from a local stone, named alabaster today.[citation needed]

Originally she was viewed as the protector goddess of Lower Egypt. As protector, she was seen as defender of the pharaoh, and consequently of the later chief male deity, Ra, who was also a solar deity, gaining her the titles Lady of Flame and Eye of Ra.

Her role in the Egyptian pantheon became diminished as Sekhmet, a similar lioness war deity, became more dominant in the unified culture of Lower and Upper Egypt.[citation needed]

In the first millennium BC, when domesticated cats were popularly kept as pets, Bastet began to be represented as a woman with the head of a cat and ultimately emerged as the Egyptian cat-goddess par excellence.[4] In the Middle Kingdom, the domestic cat appeared as Bastet’s sacred animal and after the New Kingdom she was depicted as a woman with the head of a cat or a lioness, carrying a sacred rattle and a box or basket.[5]

[edit]Bubastis

She was a local deity whose cult was centred in the city of¬†Bubastis, now Tell Basta, which lay in the¬†Delta¬†near what is known as¬†Zagazig¬†today.[4][5]¬†The town, known in¬†Egyptian¬†as¬†pr-b»Ěstt¬†(also transliterated as Per-Bast), carries her name, literally meaning “House of Bastet”. It was known in Greek as¬†Boubastis¬†(őíőŅŌćő≤őĪŌÉŌĄőĻŌā) and translated into Hebrew as¬†P√ģ-beset. In the biblical¬†Book of Ezekiel¬†30:17, the town appears in the Hebrew form Pibeseth.[4]

[edit]Temple

Herodotus, a Greek historian who travelled in Egypt in the 5th century BC, describes Bastet’s¬†temple¬†at some length:

“Save for the entrance, it stands on an island; two separate channels approach it from the Nile, and after coming up to the entry of the temple, they run round it on opposite sides; each of them a hundred feet wide, and overshadowed by trees. The temple is in the midst of the city, the whole circuit of which commands a view down into it; for the city’s level has been raised, but that of the temple has been left as it was from the first, so that it can be seen into from without. A stone wall, carven with figures, runs round it; within is a grove of very tall trees growing round a great shrine, wherein is the image of the goddess; the temple is a square, each side measuring a furlong. A road, paved with stone, of about three furlongs’ length leads to the entrance, running eastward through the market place, towards the temple of Hermes; this road is about four hundred feet wide, and bordered by trees reaching to heaven.”[6]

The description offered by Herodotus and several Egyptian texts suggest that water surrounded the temple on three (out of four) sides, forming a type of lake known asisheru, not too dissimilar from that surrounding the Temple of the goddess Mut in Karnak at Thebes.[4] Lakes known as isheru were typical of temples devoted to a number of leonine goddesses who are said to represent one original goddess, daughter of the Sun-God Re / Eye of Re: Bastet, Mut, Tefnut, Hathor and Sakhmet.[4]Each of them had to be appeased by a specific set of rituals.[4] One myth relates that a lioness, fiery and wrathful, was once cooled down by the water of the lake, transformed into a gentle cat and settled in the temple.[4]

[edit]Festival

Herodotus also relates that of the many solemn festivals held in Egypt, the most important and most popular one was that celebrated in Bubastis in honour of the goddess, whom he calls Bubastis and equates with the Greek goddess¬†Artemis.[7][8]¬†Each year on the day of her festival, the town is said to have attracted some 700,000 visitors (“as the people of the place say”), both men and women (but not children), who arrived in numerous crowded ships. The women engaged in music, song and dance on their way to the place, great sacrifices were made and prodigious amounts of wine were drunk, more than was the case throughout the year.[9]¬†This accords well with Egyptian sources which prescribe that leonine goddesses are to be appeased with the “feasts of drunkenness”.[2]

The goddess Bast was sometimes depicted holding a ceremonial¬†sistrum¬†in one hand and an¬†aegis¬†in the other‚ÄĒthe aegis usually resembling a collar or gorget embellished with a¬†lioness¬†head.

Bast was a goddess of the sun throughout most of Ancient Egyptian history, but later when she was changed into a cat goddess rather than a lioness, she was changed to a goddess of the moon by Greeks occupying Ancient Egypt toward the end of its civilization. In Greek mythology, Bast also is known as Ailuros.

[edit]History and connection to other gods

This section needs additionalcitations for verification.(February 2010)

Cats in ancient Egypt¬†were revered highly, partly due to their ability to combat¬†vermin¬†such as mice, rats – which threatened key food supplies – and snakes, especiallycobras. Cats of royalty were, in some instances, known to be dressed in golden jewelry and were allowed to eat from their owners’ plates. Turner and Bateson estimate that during the Twenty-second dynasty c.945-715 BC, Bastet worship changed to being a major cat deity (as opposed to a lioness deity).[10]¬†With the unification of the two Egypts, many similar deities were merged into one or the other, the significance of Bast and Sekhmet, to the regional cultures that merged, resulted in a retention of both, necessitating a change to one or the other. During later dynasties, Bast was assigned a lesser role in the pantheon, but retained.

In the temple at¬†Per-Bast¬†some cats were found to have been¬†mummified¬†and buried, many next to their owners. More than 300,000 mummified cats were discovered when Bast’s temple at Per-Bast was¬†excavated. The main source of information about the Bast cult comes from Herodotus who visited Bubastis around 450 BC during the heyday of the cult. He equated Bastet with the Greek Goddess¬†Artemis. He wrote extensively about the cult. Turner and Bateson suggest that the status of the cat was roughly equivalent to that of the cow in modern India. The death of a cat might leave a family in great mourning and those who could would have them embalmed or buried in cat cemeteries – pointing to the great prevalence of the cult of Bastet. Extensive burials of cat remains were found not only at¬†Bubastis, but also at¬†Beni Hasan¬†and¬†Saqqara. In 1888, a farmer uncovered a plot of many hundreds of thousands of cats in Beni Hasan.[10]

The lioness represented the war goddess and protector of both lands. As the fierce lion god Maahes of Nubia later became part of Egyptian mythology, during the time of the New Kingdom, Bastet was held to be the daughter of Amun Ra, a newly ascending deity in the Egyptian pantheon during that late dynasty. Bastet became identified as his mother in the Lower Egypt, near the delta. Similarly the fierce lioness war goddess Sekhmet, became identified as the mother of Maashes in the Upper Egypt.

Wadjet-Bast, with a lioness head of Bast, the solar disk, and the cobra that represents Wadjet

As divine mother, and more especially as protector, for Lower Egypt, Bastet became strongly associated with Wadjet, the patron goddess of Lower Egypt. She eventually became Wadjet-Bast, paralleling the similar pair of patron (Nekhbet) and lioness protector (Sekhmet) for Upper Egypt. Bast fought an evil snake named Apophis.

[edit]Later perception

This section needs additionalcitations for verification.(February 2010)

Later scribes sometimes renamed her Bastet, a variation on Bast consisting of an additional feminine suffix to the one already present, thought to have been added to emphasize pronunciation; perhaps it is a diminutive name applied as she receded in the ascendancy of Sekhmet in the Egyptian pantheon. Since Bastet literally meant, (female) of the ointment jar,[citation needed] Her name was related with the lavish jars in which Egyptians stored their perfume. Bast thus gradually became regarded as the goddess of perfumes, earning the title, perfumed protector. In connection with this, when Anubisbecame the god of embalming, Bast, as goddess of ointment, came to be regarded as his wife. The association of Bastet as mother of Anubis, was broken years later when Anubis became identified as the son of Nephthys.

Ancient Egyptian statue of Bastet

The Gayer-Anderson cat, believed to be a representation of Bastet

Lower Egypt’s loss in the wars between Upper and Lower Egypt led to a decrease in the ferocity of Bast. Thus, by theMiddle Kingdom¬†she came to be regarded as a¬†domestic cat¬†rather than a lioness. Occasionally, however, she was depicted holding a lioness mask, hinting at her potential ferocity.

Because domestic cats tend to be tender and protective of their offspring, Bast also was regarded as a good mother, and she was sometimes depicted with numerous kittens. Consequently, a woman who wanted children sometimes wore an amulet showing the goddess with kittens, the number of which indicated her own desired number of children.

Eventually, her position as patron and protector of Lower Egypt led to her being identified with the more substantial goddess Mut, whose cult had risen to power with that of Amun, and eventually being syncretized with her as Mut-Wadjet-Bast. Shortly after, in the constantly evolving pantheon, Mut also absorbed the identities of the Sekhmet-Nekhbet pairing as well.

This merging of identities of similar goddesses has led to considerable confusion, leading to some attributing to Bastet the titleMistress of the Sistrum (more properly belonging to Hathor, who had become thought of as an aspect of the later emerging Isis, as had Mut), and the Greek idea of her as a lunar goddess (more properly an attribute of Mut) rather than the solar deity she was. The native Egyptian rulers were replaced by Greeks during an occupation of Egypt that lasted almost five hundred years.

These new rulers adopted many Egyptian beliefs and customs, but always “interpreted” them in relation to their Greek culture. These associations sought to link the antiquity of Egyptian culture to the newer Greek culture, thereby lending parallel roots and a sense of continuity. Indeed, much confusion occurred with subsequent generations; the identity of Bast slowly merged among the Greeks during their occupation of Egypt, who sometimes named her¬†Ailuros¬†(Greek¬†for¬†cat), thinking of Bast as a version of¬†Artemis, their own moon goddess.

Thus, to fit their own¬†cosmology, to the Greeks Bast is thought of as the sister of¬†Horus, whom they identified as¬†Apollo¬†(Artemis’ brother), and consequently, the daughter of the later emerging deities, Isis and¬†Ra. Roman occupation of Egypt followed in 30 BC, and their pantheon of deities also was identified with the Greek interpretations of the Ancient Egyptians. The introduction of Christianity and Muslim beliefs followed as well, and by the sixth century AD only a few vestiges of Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs remained, although the cult of Isis had spread to the ends of the Roman Empire.

[edit]In popular culture

Bast is a recurring character portrayed in various works by Neil Gaiman, including The Sandman and American Gods

Bastet, known as Bast in the series, is a recurring character in The Kane Chronicles trilogy by Rick Riordan. The goddess guards the house in which the protagonists reside, and serves the role of their protector.

Bubastis is the name of the genetically engineered Lynx companion of the main antagonist of the graphic novel Watchmen.

Bastet is a playable character in the Multiplayer online battle arena, SMITE. Bastet is a melee assassin and is nicknamed the Goddess of Cat.[11]

Bastet was a featured cursed Egyptian artifact in the 1998 CBS TV series “Early Edition” in season 2 episode 15 titled “Mums the Word”.

[edit]See also